How to Speak Chickadese

Black-capped Chicadee, photo by Alain Wolf (Wikimedia Commons)
Black-capped Chicadee, photo by Alain Wolf (Wikimedia Commons)

Last week, I watched as a sharp-shinned hawk made his daily foray through my yard, trying to nab one of the birds visiting my feeders. The birds dashed for cover and the hawk missed his target and alighted on the fence to plot his next move. Meanwhile, 3 black-capped chickadees that had reached safety in the branchy crown of the willow began a furious chorus of their characteristic “chicka-dee” call. But why were these tiny birds drawing attention to themselves while a deadly predator sat less than ten feet away? If you learn to speak a few words of “Chickadese,” you might be surprised at how much they were saying.

When we think about bird sounds we usually think about their songs. But birds make different sounds for different reasons, and in some cases, ornithologists have figured what these sounds mean. Songs are a vocalization that birds make when trying to attract a mate, or tell neighbors that this is their territory and “get off my lawn!” When chickadees sing it sounds like a clear whistled “fee-bee” or “fee- bee- bee.”

Chickadees also make what is described as a “gargle” call, but to me sounds like a super-speeded up recording of someone talking. This call is used in aggressive encounters between chickadees and seems to mean something like “get out of my space bozo!” The gargle call is apparently also used frequently between members of a mated pair—I am not sure what this says about the state of chickadee marital relationships.

When danger is near, say a predator is on the attack, chickadees will make a high pitched “seee” alarm call. High pitched, “thin” sounds like the “seee” call are harder to localize- many species of birds use similar sounds as alarm calls. Ornithologists believe these types of calls allow birds to warn others without giving away their location to the predator.

The “chicka-dee” call is used in multiple situations, but it is frequently used as a “mobbing call.” Birds use mobbing calls when they want to attract attention to a predator. Most predators need the element of surprise. If the prey spots the predator before the attack, the predator usually gives up and moves on. When chickadees are mobbing a predator, their chickadee call is essentially saying “Hey guys! There’s a hawk over here! Let’s go yell at him so he knows we see him!”

Slide1

About a decade ago, ornithologists at the University of Montana noticed that sometimes the “chicka-dee” call has just a couple “dee” notes at the end: “chicka-dee-dee,” and sometimes it has more: “chicka-dee-dee-dee-dee-dee.” They presented chickadees with a variety of different predators and discovered that the number of “dee” notes in the call corresponded to the level of threat the predator posed. So if chickadees were mobbing a great horned owl, the calls would have fewer “dee” notes, i.e. “chicka-dee-dee” because great horned owls hunt small to medium sized mammals, rarely chickadees. Whereas if the chickadees were presented with a perched merlin, a falcon that specializes on small birds, they would add lots of “dee” notes: “chicka-dee-dee-dee-dee-dee.” Chickadees that heard mobbing calls with more “dee” notes responded with more intensity.

When the chickadees in my yard started calling in response to the sharp-shinned hawk, I started counting. Sure enough, their calls had 4-5 “dee” notes, very similar to what the ornithologists recorded in response to high threat predators. A sharp-shinned hawk is definitely a big threat to a chickadee, if he can catch the bird unaware. But these bold little chickadees were having none of that. They agitatedly hopped about in the willow tree, “chicka-dee-dee-dee-deeing” with all their might. “We see you! We see you, you dangerous hawk! Now scram! You can’t surprise us!” I swear if chickadees could hold flaming torches, they would have been waving them at the hawk, they were such an angry mob. And after a few minutes of this, the hawk seemed to shrug his shoulders and then flew off to hunt somewhere else.

This post originally appeared in the March 15 issue of the Grand Junction Daily Sentinel.  You can read the original research paper on chickadee alarm calls here: https://hocking.biology.ualberta.ca/courses/zool407/uploads/winter07/lecture/Templeton%20et%20al2005.pdf

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How to Speak Chickadese

Tiny Terror

A Sharp-shinned Hawk devours a starling it has captured. Photo by Laura M. Eppig. Check out her excellent nature photography at http://laurameppigphotography.smugmug.com
A Sharp-shinned Hawk devours a starling it has captured. Photo by Laura M. Eppig. Check out her excellent nature photography at http://laurameppigphotography.smugmug.com

Feeding the birds is typically associated with peaceful domesticity and little old ladies singing “tuppence a bag.” But when you feed the birds, you invite nature into your backyard and as Tennyson put it, nature can be “red in tooth and claw.”

In the wintertime, one of the regulars at my backyard feeder is not there for the birdseed, but rather for the seed-eaters. A Sharp-shinned Hawk, North America’s smallest hawk, visits almost everyday and occasionally makes a meal out of one of the sparrows, finches or doves that come to dine. A visit from a bird-eating hawk is not unusual during the winter. Nic Korte recently wrote about hawks visiting his backyard feeders in the “Birds and More” blog. Typically, you only see Sharp-shinned Hawks in town during the winter, because they spend the breeding season in dense forests, such as those on the Grand Mesa. They move to forest edges or suburban areas in the non-breeding season.

The idea of a hawk in your suburban backyard may seem odd because we usually think of hawks as large, soaring birds like the Red-tailed Hawk. These birds are usually seen perched on a telephone pole or soaring high above grassland. But the Sharp-shinned Hawk is a different kind of hawk all together.

Hawks are divided by biologists into two groups: the large, soaring hawks with long wings and relatively short tails are buteos; while the smaller, shorter-winged hawks with longer tails are accipiters. Accipiters are build for speed and maneuverability in order to catch their main prey- other birds. While a buteo will typically dive down on an unsuspecting rodent from high in the sky, an accipiter engages in high-speed ambush and pursuit to catch a bird.

Slide1There are only three species of accipiter in North America and the Sharp-shinned hawk is the smallest- less than a foot high. It is easily confused with its cousin, the Cooper’s Hawk, which has virtually identical markings, but is larger and in flight, you can see that the end of its tail is curved rather than straight. (Here’s a trick to remember “Straight = Sharp-shinned, Curved = Cooper’s.”) Sharp-shinned Hawks are also sometimes confused with Merlins, another very small bird of prey with similar markings. However the Merlin is a falcon, built for high speed with very pointy wing tips. If the Sharp-shinned Hawk is fast and agile like a Porsche, then the merlin is a fighter jet.

Maybe you will think me ghoulish if I admit that I enjoy having the Sharp-shinned hunt in my yard. It’s always easy to tell when the hawk is around: in a flash, the birds disappear into the nearest dense cover and start giving a high-pitched, soft “chip” call- a warning to their fellows. My kids and I immediately start looking for the “Sharpie” as we call him. Usually he misses and perches in the tree right across from our kitchen window to plot his next move. Occasionally, he will succeed and fly off with a hearty breakfast clutched in his talons. And if we are lucky, he will enjoy his meal in our yard while we watch and talk about how we feel bad for the little bird, but the hawk has to eat too. After all, nature is not gentle, and bird feeding is not always for the timid.

This post originally appeared in the February 15, 2015 issue of the Grand Junction Daily Sentinel http://www.gjsentinel.com

 

 

 

 

 

Tiny Terror